" program and how does it
work with ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007?
What is the "Basic
Project Input Sheet", and why
is it linked to all the other calculations?
What makes your "Enhanced Equal Friction" Duct Calculator better than the
typical duct calculator wheel or sliderule?
Why do you call your duct sizing program
"Simplified" Static Regain? Isn't static regain sizing
pretty complicated and tedious?
Does the "Fan
Static Pressure Calculations"
Program include all possible types of duct fittings? Does it use actual
duct fitting loss "Coefficients" like ASHRAE or SMACNA, or does
it use equivalent lengths for fitting losses?
What's included in the "Information
Request Letters and Forms"?
What's their purpose?
What makes your "Pipe Sizing -Optimum Economic Sizes" Programs better than the
typical circuit sizing wheel or pipe sizing charts?
What are the "HELP" buttons on most of the Programs? (In the upper
right corner of the sheet)
How does your "Water
Pipe Sizing" Program calculate
the maximum allowable pipe pressure drop (PSIG/100 ft.)?
What rainfall rates are the "Horizontal Roof Drainage Piping" Programs based on?
Are the "Natural
Gas Sizing" Programs based on
typical "length versus cubic feet per hour (CFH)" tables?
Does the "Water
Heater Sizing Calculations"
Program adjust the Demand and Storage Factors for various types of
What's the difference between "Peer Review"
and "Quality Control Checking"?
Why are there so many pages in the "Mechanical Plan Review" Section? Doesn't that make the process pretty
Why is there so much information in the "Plumbing Plan Review for Underground Floor
Plans"? It appears that there
is a lot of information required from the floors above to check the
Underground Plumbing Plan?
What is the "Conversion
Program" that's listed under
HVAC Design Solutions - FAQ Responses
is your new "62.1-2007 Comply-VAV" program and how does it work
with ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007?
Our "62.1-2007 Comply-VAV" Software Package incorporates all of
the ASHRAE "Ventilation Rate Procedure" formulas, tables, and
directives. Our program greatly simplifies the compliance process
by automatically performing many of the complex calculations, with minimal
input from the User (Typically only 6 to 8 input items per zone).
An important feature of our programs is the proprietary
"Optimization Procedure" which can be used to assure that the required
Outdoor Air Volume is established, while avoiding the potentially excessive
Outdoor Air Volume that could be dictated by standard calculations.
"Optimization" of the Outdoor Air requirements can mean a significant
saving in Energy and Operating Costs over the life of a system.
Compliance Documents can be printed after completing the calculations
and can be submitted as a compliance record to the appropriate Building
Department or Code Authority, along with the project construction
What is the "Basic Project Input Sheet",
and why is it linked to all the other calculations?
The "Basic Project Input Sheet" should be the first Form to
be completed on each Project. Information that is inserted in this Form is
automatically transferred to other programs for use in calculations and
for documenting project data. The information you input into this form is
transferred to other Programs and Forms when you open the desired Program
and select "Enable Macros" and then select "Update
Links". For instance, once you have replaced "Your Company
Name" at the top of the Form with your actual Company Name, it will
appear at the top of each form and will be included when a hard copy of
the file is printed.
These values are also Locked in the Programs so they can't be
accidentally changed. If you need to change any of the data, you should
return to the "Basic Project Input Sheet" to make the changes,
and then "Save" it again.
What makes your
"Enhanced Equal Friction" Duct Calculator better than the
typical duct calculator wheel or sliderule?
Our "Duct Sizing Calculator - To Avoid Obstructions" uses a
modified equal friction sizing procedure, including velocity reduction at
larger air quantities. In addition our "Enhanced Equal Friction Duct
Sizing" incorporates "Duct Sizing to Avoid Obstructions"
(such as beams) in the ceiling space. The program also includes Yellow or
Red warning "Flags" if the space below the beam is too small and
would result in duct sizing that exceeds recommended aspect ratios.
Additionally, the Duct Sizing calculations select the most economical
duct sizes to fit within the available space.
The typical duct calculator wheels give a wide range of possible sizes
and it is left to the Designer to pick one of the many possibilities.
Depending on the experience of the Designer or the time available for duct
sizing, the selection of duct sizes could result in ducts that won't fit
in the space (which can lead to Change Orders!). Also, the ducts could be
significantly more expensive to install and also to operate (increased
horsepower) than optimum sizing.
Why do you call your duct
sizing program "Simplified" Static Regain? Isn't static regain
sizing pretty complicated and tedious?
Yes, Static Regain duct sizing CAN be quite complicated and tedious.
Duct sizes are adjusted so that the static regain (due to velocity
reduction) in each section of ductwork will offset the static pressure
losses due to duct friction and fitting losses. The advantages of using
Static Regain sizing include a potentially significant reduction in air
balancing requirements for the system. Static Regain sizing is often
utilized for supply duct mains, while branches and runouts are sized by
We call the program "Simplified Static Regain Duct
Sizing" because the design process has been reduced significantly
from conventional Static Regain Sizing. Please refer to the typical
ductwork sketch in the description of the "HVAC Airside Design"
Package. All that's required for "Simplified Static Regain"
sizing is to input the "Initial Velocity of First Duct Section from
the Fan", input the "Air Quantity" at each duct section,
input the "Space Below Beams" at each duct section, input the
"Measured Length" of each duct section, and count the various
fittings for each section. That's it! "Simplified"!
This "Simplified Static Regain Duct Sizing" Program reduces
the time and effort required to use Static Regain sizing, by performing
the numerous iterations that are required to match static pressure regain
with static pressure losses. In addition, "Simplified Static Regain
Duct Sizing" incorporates "Duct Sizing to Avoid
Obstructions" (such as beams) in the ceiling space.
Does the "Fan Static Pressure
Calculations" Program include all possible types of duct fittings?
Does it use actual duct fitting loss "Coefficients" like
ASHRAE or SMACNA, or does it use equivalent lengths for fitting losses?
No, the program does not include "all possible types" of duct
fittings in the database. However, it does include all of the typically
used fitting types and configurations, and it does incorporate the duct
fitting loss "Coefficients" from many sources, including ASHRAE,
SMACNA, Trane, and Carrier.
What's included in the
"Information Request Letters and Forms"? What's their purpose?
The Information Request Letters and Forms include two Building Internal
Load Information request letters, a Ceiling Space Information request
letter, a Heating/Cooling Load Design Criteria Form, and three various
Load Calculation Take-off Forms. The "Building Mechanical Information
Request" letters should be sent to the Building Owner, Facility User,
and/or Project Architect for their input regarding Mechanical system
loads. The Information Request Letters and Forms are intended as
"Programming" tools, to determine anticipated usage and internal
loads of all Rooms in the Project.
An important benefit of sending the Information Request Letters to the
Owner or Facility User is that it involves them in the Design of their
Facility. Improved Owner/Design Team/Construction Team relationships can
significantly increase the Owner's satisfaction with Your Project.
your "Pipe Sizing -Optimum Economic Sizes" Programs better
than the typical circuit sizing wheel or pipe sizing charts?
The typical circuit sizing wheels recommend that sizing should be based
on a maximum friction rate, and it is left to the Designer to select the
sizes on that basis. Depending on the experience of the Designer or the
time available for pipe sizing, the selection of pipe sizes could result
in excessive velocities that lead to noise or erosion problems. If the
velocity is too low, this can lead to air trapping problems. Also, the
pipes could be significantly more expensive to install and also to operate
(increased horsepower) than optimum sizing.
The "Pipe Sizing - Optimum Economical Sizes" Programs use a
combination of velocity and pressure drop, and include recommended ranges
of velocity and pressure to avoid erosion and air trapping problems. In
addition, "Pipe Sizing - Optimum Economical Sizes" Program
includes pipe size selections that range from "Lower First Cost"
to "Lower Operating Cost". This allows alternate size selections
with economic trade-offs. The Program also includes Red, Yellow, or Orange
warning "Flags" if the alternate size selection would result in
excessive velocity, too low velocity, or excessive pressure drop.
What are the "HELP" buttons on most of
the Programs? (In the upper right corner of the sheet)
The "HELP" buttons are hyperlinks to Help Files that describe
the particular Program, describe how to use the program, what values to
input into the program, and how to interpret the results of the
calculations. The Help Files range from one or two pages to six pages or
more. All Help Files can be printed out for permanent Reference.
How does your "Water Pipe Sizing" Program
calculate the maximum allowable pipe pressure drop (PSIG/100 ft.)?
Maximum allowable pipe pressure drop (PSIG/100 ft.) is based on the
available water pressure from the "street main" and the pressure
requirement of the most remote fixture on the system. To determine the
pressure available for pipe losses, it is necessary to deduct the pressure
losses for all of the known devices and accessories in the water service,
including the Water Meter, Backflow Preventer, Pressure Reducing Valve,
and Water Filter or Water Treatment Equipment, as applicable. Also, the
loss of pressure due to static height of the highest fixture is deducted
from the "available water pressure". The final "Water
Pressure Available for Piping Loss (PSIG)" is then applied to the
"Total Developed Length of the Longest Pipe Run" to determine
the "Maximum Allowable Pipe Pressure Drop (PSIG/100 ft.)" for
To determine an accurate "Total Developed Length of the Longest
Pipe Run", the "Preliminary Water Pipe Sizing Schedule"
Program is used. It is NOT good practice to measure the longest
pipe run and "add 50% for fittings", which can result in
over-sized or under-sized pipe systems. To obtain a significantly closer
estimate of the "Total Developed Length", the "Preliminary
Sizing Schedule" is completed and the resulting "Total Fitting
Equivalent Length" is added to the actual Measured Length (horizontal
and vertical) of the "Longest Pipe Run". This corrected value is
then input into the "Water Pipe Sizing Calculations" Program.
This will adjust the "Maximum Allowable Pipe Pressure Drop" to a
more accurate value. This new "Maximum Allowable" is
automatically transferred to the "Preliminary Water Pipe Sizing"
Program, which automatically calculates a new "Total Fitting
Equivalent Length". This new Equivalent Length is applied to the
Measured Length in the "Water Pipe Sizing Calculations" Program
to arrive at an even more accurate "Maximum Allowable Pipe Pressure
Drop". After a couple of iterations, it is not necessary to repeat
the process, because the "Maximum Allowable Pressure Drop (PSIG/100
ft.)" will not change significantly. The final result is an accurate
"Allowable Pressure Drop" figure to use for the Water System
What rainfall rates are the
"Horizontal Roof Drainage Piping" Programs based on?
The "Rainfall Rate for 100 Year, 60 Minute Duration Storm in Local
Area (Inches/Hour)" should be based on the Local Weather Bureau Data,
from Locally Adopted Building Codes, or from publications such as National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). If State or Local Codes
require a more conservative sizing basis than the 100 Year, 60 Minute
Storm, the required Rainfall Rate can also be used with these Programs.
Any Rainfall Rate can be used with these Programs, since the calculations
are based on formulas, not on specific charts of various rainfall rates.
Are the "Natural Gas
Sizing" Programs based on typical "length versus cubic feet
per hour (CFH)" tables?
No, the "Natural Gas Pipe Sizing Schedules - Low Pressure and -
High Pressure" Programs use a combination of measured lengths, valve
and fitting pressure drop factors, and NFPA Formula or Weymouth Formulas
to determine accurate pipe sizes. This eliminates the usual interpolation
required when using the Tables. In addition, the "Natural Gas
Sizing" Programs include pipe size calculations that are based on
"Maximum Allowable Pressure Drop" for the longest run of piping.
This helps to assure that the available gas pressure will be adequate to
provide the required pressure at the most remote gas furnace or appliance.
Does the "Water Heater Sizing
Calculations" Program adjust the Demand and Storage Factors for
various types of facilities?
Yes, the "Water Heater Sizing" Program includes a
"Drop-down List" of several types of facilities, for the User
selection. This selection automatically adjusts the Demand and Storage
Factors to values recommended by nationally recognized organizations such
as ASHRAE and ASPE, as well as, by typical Plumbing Codes.
What's the difference between "Peer
Review" and "Quality Control Checking"?
"Peer Review" and "Quality Control Checking" are
actually synonymous, as used with this Process. We have used the term of
"Peer Review" because the Programs and Checklists were written
as, and should be used as a "disinterested" outside Consultant
that is reviewing your Project. By approaching the Review process as an
"outsider" or Peer, it is more likely that most Errors and
Omissions that may have slipped by during Design and Drafting will be
eliminated. Also, as an "outsider" it is easier to check on
Coordination Between Disciplines, to uncover Constructability Problems,
and help discover and eliminate questions and discrepancies that may come
up after a Construction Contract has been signed.
Why are there so many pages in the "Mechanical
Plan Review" Section? Doesn't that make the process pretty
As you can see from the "Table of Contents" and
"Examples" pages, the "Mechanical Peer Review" Package
is intended to be all-inclusive and to cover most of the types of Projects
that are associated with HVAC Engineering. The "Mechanical Plan
Review" Section is organized by Plan Types, such as "Legend and
Symbols Sheet", "Schedule Sheets", "Mechanical
Ductwork Floor Plans", etc. The "Schedule Sheets" are
further organized alphabetically by "Equipment Type", with
hyperlinks to each Equipment Schedule checklist. The "Mechanical
Detail Drawings" are arranged by "Type of Detail" and also
alphabetically, and also have hyperlinks to the Detail checklist.
With the "logical" organization and extensive hyperlink
navigation, the review items are relatively easy to use and provide a very
thorough Review of most HVAC Projects.
there so much information in the "Plumbing Plan Review for
Underground Floor Plans"? It appears that there is a lot of
information required from the floors above to check the Underground
It's true that the "Plumbing Underground Plan" includes a
significant amount of work on the floors above, to determine the actual
loads on the underground pipes. This is a typical part of the Plumbing
Design process, and the Review Checklist Items basically follow the
process to assure that all items have been taken care of properly. The
extra work that is required for checking the Plumbing Underground will
reduce the work required when the floors above are checked.
What is the "Conversion
Program" that's listed under Miscellaneous Design?
The included "Conversion Program", Convert.exe is a
Freeware Program that can be used to convert many units from one type
system to another, such as English Units to SI Units. The program
includes tabs for the various categories, such as Temperature, Volume,
Mass, Pressure, Power, Distance, Flow, Area, Acceleration, etc. After
selecting the category tab, the desired "Input Units" such as
"Gallons Per Minute (GPM)" and the desired "Output
Units" such as "Liters Per Minute (LPM)" are selected.
When the GPM value is input, the converted LPM value is displayed. The
program can also be "Customized" to add other conversions.
Note that there is no guarantee that the program will work for all
conversions. The Convert.exe program is provided "as is" and
the author or any distributor can not be held responsible for any damage
that might occur by using the program, or for any information contained
in the program.